• 19) AND

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    Conjunction And
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    AND transitions are perhaps the most common and least powerful logical transitions.


    "And" transitions are possibly the most common logical transitions. One reason that AND transitions are common is that "and"  is often implicit and assumed when a transition is not plainly identified.


    For example, the sentences "All mammals have hair. Most mammals give birth to live young." are connected with an implicit "and" transition. The sentences could easily be combined to read "All mammals have hair, and most mammals give birth to live young." 


    Therefore, for many statements that use the "and" transition, the word "and" is implicit and unstated.


    "And" transitions are also common because "and" can connect elements of LISTS and CHRONOLOGIES. Therefore, when lists or chronologies are used to structure parts of a document, "and" transitions commonly connect the elements of the list or chronology. For example, we could visualize our list of frameworks as connected by "and" transitions


    Lists Connected With And

    "And" transitions are ubiquitous and useful because they are the simplest way to connect elements of information that might both be true. Many premises can be connected using "and" transitions.


    The word "And" is not the only way to reflect the AND conjunction. Some other words that can also express "And" are:

    "And" Transitions

    And

    Furthermore

    Also

    Moreover

    Another      

    In addition

    Other

    First, second, etc.


    Finally, Last, etc.


    However, the simplicity and versatility of the "and"  transition is also a major drawback. "And" transitions by themselves are not SPECIFIC. Connecting two pieces of information with an "and" transition only tells the audience that the two pieces of information may both be true, but does NOT indicate anything else about the relationship between the two pieces of information.


    Sometimes, it is possible to use logical transitions that are similar to "and," but more specific. For example, if two premises are similar to each other, then expressing the similarity is more powerful than simply declaring both premises. Similarity can be expressed using several terms, such as:

    Similarity Transitions

    Similarly

    In the same way

    Comparably     

    Just as... so too

    Likewise

    A similar x


    Similarity transitions are more "powerful" than "and" transitions because similarity transitions convey more information than simply "and."

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    The "And" logical transition is common and easy to use. Although the "And" transition is appropriate in many situations, it is important to make sure that more powerful transitions (e.g. similarity, hierarchical conjunctions, "but") are not appropriate before using "And."


    18) CONJUNCTIONS20) HIERARCHICAL CONJUNCTIONS