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    There are several possible ways to navigate the "A Framework for Scientific Papers" (AFSP) module. 


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    SEQUENTIALLY


    Each section of the AFSP module is numbered. One potential way to navigate the site is to start at the beginning and sequentially follow the numbered sections. Links at the top and bottom (left and right) of each page will take you to the previous or next section in the module. Alternatively, you can use the navigation buttons at the left of the page.


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    AS A TREE


    AFSP is organized as a tree structure. The tree structure can also be navigated. At the bottom of each section there are either (A) links to sub-branches of the tree; or (B) a short summary indicated by the Application Button (Application Button). It is possible to follow branches until reaching an Application Button, indicating that you have reached the terminal branch (or "leaf," if you will) of the tree. Going back to the branch point will allow other branches of the tree to be navigated.


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    AS A LINEAR SEQUENCE

    It is also possible to access access site content in a continuous sequence. To show all sections of the module, click on the following link:

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    Show all sections of the AFSP module.


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    DIVIDED INTO SUB-SECTIONS


    For hypothesis-driven scientific papers, every aspect of the paper contributes to testing one or more Measurable and General Hypotheses. Much of the reasoning of scientific papers is directly connected to hypothesis testing. Moreover, focusing on hypotheses can help to make papers more simple and specific. Writing can be simplified by ensuring that all text has a clear purpose related to developing and testing hypotheses. A majority of scientific sentences are premises (with references) or conclusions that deductively or inductively follow from premises. Any text that does not clearly and directly contribute to testing one or more hypotheses can be removed. The clear goal of developing and testing hypotheses can also help to make writing more specific. For example, starting with a hypothesis and reverse-engineering text can help to ensure that all text makes a specific contribution to hypothesis testing.


    Therefore, it is reasonable to divide "A Framework for Scientific Papers" into three sections. The first section reviews what hypotheses are, and how both deductive and inductive reasoning can be used to test hypotheses. The second section addresses how the Introduction and Methods sections explain the development of study hypotheses. Finally, the third section addresses how the Results and Discussion sections explain the outcomes and consequences of testing both General and Measurable hypotheses.


    Clear scientific writing requires considerable practice, reflection, and revision (Alley, 1996). Strong reasoning and simple, specific presentation are the most important contributors to clear scientific writing. Therefore, strongly-reasoned, simple, and specific writing is a sufficient goal for the AFSP module. 


    However, once an author can consistently organize and write clear scientific arguments, it is appropriate to consider ways of increasing the impact of scientific writing. Therefore, the "Impact" section of AFSP is  recommended only when authors are comfortable with the reasoning and specific format of scientific papers.


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    SECTION 1: WHAT HYPOTHESES ARE

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    SECTION 2: DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES

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    SECTION 3: TESTING HYPOTHESES

    ADDITIONAL SECTION
     Increasing Impact Button

     SECTION 4: INCREASING IMPACT

    31) SPOKEN COMMUNICATIONSECTION 1: HYPOTHESES