### Comparisons require statistics.

#### Deductively testing hypotheses requires comparisons. Comparisons most often require statistics. Therefore, testing Measurable Hypotheses in the Results most often requires statistical comparisons. Combining modus tollens and Strong Inference to support hypotheses is generally considered to be acceptable. However, statistical comparisons and hypothesis tests do not necessarily imply that differences among groups are important.

19) WHAT are the DATA?21) WHY data support or reject hypotheses